Body composition and spasticity in children with bilateral cerebral palsy

Lawia Szkoda, Andrzej Szopa, Ilona Kwiecień-Czerwieniec, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa


Lawia Szkoda, Andrzej Szopa, Ilona Kwiecień-Czerwieniec, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa – Body composition and spasticity in children with bilateral cerebral palsy. Fizjoterapia Polska 2022; 22(2); 174-185

Abstract
Objective. The objective of this study was to identify the correlation between body composition of children with cerebral palsy and the degree of spasticity in the muscles of the lower limbs.
Material and methods. The study included a group of 59 independently walking children aged 8 to 16 with spastic diplegia. The control group included 59 children without central movement disorders – students at Primary School No. 25 in Sosnowiec. The research included: 1) assessment of body composition and its components using the TANITA MC-780 S MA scale; 2) assessment of the degree of spasticity according to the modified Ashworth scale; 3) calculations of BMI indices in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) and BMI OLAF developed by the Children’s Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw.
Results. The most severe spasticity, both in the right and left lower limbs, was observed in the extensors of the ankle joint. In turn, the mildest spasticity was observed in the group of flexors of the knee joint of the right and left lower limbs. The greater the degree of spasticity in the muscles of the lower limbs, the greater the deficit in fat-free mass and muscle mass in the lower limbs.
Conclusions. Children with CP have deficits in terms of muscle mass. The deficit of muscle tissue depends on the degree of spasticity of the proximal muscle groups of the lower limbs.
Key words:
body composition, spasticity, cerebral palsy
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Postural stability of children born prematurely in the perinatal risk group

Katarzyna Kniaziew-Gomoluch, Andrzej Szopa, Tomasz Łosień, Zenon Kidoń, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa


Katarzyna Kniaziew-Gomoluch, Andrzej Szopa, Tomasz Łosień, Zenon Kidoń, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa – Postural stability of children born prematurely in the perinatal risk group. Fizjoterapia Polska 2022; 22(2); 118-129

Abstract
Introduction. With advances in neonatal care, children born prematurely have a greater chance of survival, but their organ immaturity puts them at increased risk for central developmental disorders. The most common risk factors for such disorders are neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH grade III, IV).
Object. Based on the assumption that early central motor disorders are accompanied by impaired postural control, we compared measures of postural stability in infants born prematurely and at high risk for central motor disorders, i.e.: 1) IVH stage III or IV; or 2) RDS with infants born prematurely with normal brain ultrasound results and no perinatal burden (control group).
Materials and Methods. For this purpose, in a group of 76 prematurely born infants qualified for the SYNAGIS program, a posturometric examination was performed in a supine position using a stabilographic platform (device designed and manufactured in the Department of Biomedical Electronics of the Institute of Electronics of the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice).
Results. Analysis of stability measures in individual subgroups showed that in both groups of infants with perinatal risk (IVH and RDS), the values of all evaluated posturometric parameters were lower than those presented by infants without perinatal stress.
Conclusions. 1. Evaluation of stability measures  in the supine position is an original proposal for the evaluation of postural control of infants born prematurely in the first months of life.
2. Differences in stability measures between children born prematurely with the risk of central disturbances due to hypoxia (RDS) or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and their peers without perinatal stress with normal head ultrasound results may indicate the appearance of postural control development disorders in the former.
Key words:
prematurely born children, perinatal risk factors, infant postural control disorders, posturometry, stabilographic platform
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The impact of high body weight on children’s aerobic capacity in the primary school age

Agata Dobrowolska, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Andrzej Szopa


Agata Dobrowolska, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Andrzej Szopa – The impact of high body weight on children’s aerobic capacity in the primary school age. Fizjoterapia Polska 2022; 22(1); 222-232

Abstract
Introduction. Overweight and obesity are among the greatest global challenges of the 21st century. In Poland, the number of overweight children has tripled in the last 20 years. In order to determine the level of aerobic capacity as well as the selection of forms and intensity of physical training in children with excess body weight, many methods are used, e.g. 6-minute walk test (6MWT) or spiroergometric test (CPET).
Aim od the study. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance parameters of children with excess body weight in comparison to children with proper body weight. Additionally, an attempt was made to answer the question whether the results of the indirect method efficiency assessment are consistent with the results of the spiroergometric test.
Material and methodology. The research was carried out in a group of 25 children with excess body weight (study group; BMI 93.7 ± 4.11 percentile) and 25 children with normal body weight (control group; BMI 28 ± 19.62 percentile) aged 8-12 years. The tests consisted of 3 parts: 1) measurement of body weight, body height and body weight composition; 2) ergospirometric test (CPET) carried out on a cycloergometer using the Godfrey ramp type protocol; 3) assessment of aerobic capacity based on the result of the 6MWT test.
Results. There were significant differences in the VO2 / kg result in the studied children between the study group (26.2 ± 4.32 ml / kg / min) and the control group (36.2 ± 5.75 ml / kg / min) and the results of the 6MTW test in the study group was 486.5 ± 86.35 m, and in the control group 519.6 ± 85.40 m.
Conclusions. There were no differences in the value of the VO2peak parameter in children from the study and control groups; however, differences in the result of VO2 / kg were noticed. Children with hight BMI characterized by a greater difference between the observed and expected value of 6MWT than children with proper body weight.
Key words:
children’s aerobic capacity, CPET, 6MWT, excess body weight, high BMI
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Early and late effect of unilateral mastectomy on the weight bearing distribution

Anna Koralewska, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Robert Łukowski

Anna Koralewska, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Robert Łukowski – Early and late effect of unilateral mastectomy on the weight bearing distribution. Fizjoterapia Polska 2022; 22(1); 6-18

Abstract
Introduction. A mastectomy is a common treatment for breast cancer. In Poland, the vast majority of women after mastectomy use an external breast prosthesis.
Objective. The aim of the study was to identify differences in the weight-bearing distribution between women in the early and late period after mastectomy.
Material and methodology. 42 women after unilateral complete or radical amputation of the breast were qualified for the study. The study consisted of 3 parts: anthropometric measurements, measurements of the circumference of the upper limbs, assessment of the weight-bearing distribution using the stabilometric platform.
Results. Within the group of women in the early post-mastectomy period, the weight-bearing distribution was similar between the amputated and non-amputated sides in test with and without external breast prothesis. This has also been observed within the group of women in the late post-mastectomy period. There was no statistical difference between both studied groups. The tests were carried out with and without external breast prosthesis and the results indicate no significant effect of prosthesis on the symmetry of the weight-bearing distribution nor the percentage of load on the amputated and non-amputated sides of the body.
Conclusions. Lymphodema occurs in women in both early and late period after mastectomy however that occurrence does not affect  the nature of the asymmetry of the weight- bearing distribution  between the amputated and non-amputated body sides; The breast prosthesis does not have a significant impact on the weight-bearing distribution between the amputated and non-amputated sides. The analyzed issue requires further comprehensive research.
Key words:
total mastectomy, external breast prosthesis, postural control disorders, posturography, stabilographic platform
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A congenital malformation syndrome – situs inversus, esophageal atresia

Sylwia Potępa-Kowalczyk, Agata Dobrowolska, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Andrzej Szopa

S. Potępa-Kowalczyk, A. Dobrowolska, M. Domagalska-Szopa, A. Szopa – A congenital malformation syndrome – situs inversus, esophageal atresia. Fizjoterapia Polska 2021; 21(4); 122-125

Abstract
Introduction. In case of a congenital malformation syndrome, a correct diagnosis is made on the basis of characteristic features. Situs inversus is a rare congenital condition. Its incidence with concomitant esophageal atresia is very low. Both disorders in body laterality formation and agenesis of esophagus might accompany various congenital malformations. When multiple defects are present, standard treatment options are unavailable.
Case Report. A child was diagnosed with a 45XX, rob(13,14)(q10,q10) karyotype and a congenital malformation syndrome including: situs inversus with dextrocardia, esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, hydrocephaly, right lung hypoplasia, and atrial septal defect. As of now, an official clinical diagnosis of the child has not been confirmed.
Conclusions.  Treating this type of malformation syndrome is always challenging and requires an interdisciplinary approach. Comprehensive care provided to a child with congenital malformation syndrome should include treatment of the present disorders as well as prevention of possible complications.
Key words:
situs inversus, esophageal atresia, multiple defects, congenital malformation syndrome, dextrocardia
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The impact of adipose tissue content on the range of motion of the upper limb among children aged 7-11 years

Patrycja Paszek, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa

Patrycja Paszek, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa – The impact of adipose tissue content on the range of motion of the upper limb among children aged 7-11 years. Fizjoterapia Polska 2021; 21(2); 190-196

Abstract
Introduction. The problem of excessive adipose tissue among children and adolescents is becoming more common every year. Obesity leads to gradual impairment of the skeletal and muscular system. It is important to detect abnormalities at the earliest possible stage so that appropriate actions can be taken as soon as possible in order to restore the proper functioning of the body. Aim of the study. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of adipose tissue content on the range of motion of the upper limb among school children. Material and methods. The research was conducted from October 2019 to September 2020. The research group consisted of 112 children aged 7-11 years, including 68 girls and 44 boys. The non-invasive bioimpedance method was used in the study of body mass composition, while the range of flexion and abduction of the upper limb in the shoulder joint was measured using a GYKO device. Results. Out of 112 examined children, 62 participants had excess adipose tissue. Statistically significant differences in the mobility of the shoulder joint (flexion and abduction) were noted between children with excess body fat and the other group with normal adipose tissue (p < 0,05). Conclusions. It was showed, that children whose body fat norm was definitely exceeded had a smaller range of motion of the upper limb, compared with people with normal body fat.
Key words:
range of motion, obesity, children
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Infant crawling and motor coordination level of children aged 4-7 years

Aleksandra Deninger, Urszula Nowacka-Gębosz, Kamila Pilok, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Andrzej Szopa

Aleksandra Deninger, Urszula Nowacka-Gębosz, Kamila Pilok, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Andrzej Szopa – Infant crawling and motor coordination level of children aged 4-7 years. Fizjoterapia Polska 2020; 20(5); 216-225

Abstract
Introduction. One of the stages of a child’s motor development in the first year of life is crawling, whose positive influence on psychomotor development has been supported by research. However, some children skip this stage of locomotion and start to move immediately in a standing position. The aim of the study was to assess the motor and visual-motor coordination of children who did not crawl in infancy and to compare the results with a group of children who did not omit this stage of motor development.
Material and methods. The study involved 53 healthy children aged 4-7 years attending preschool facilities in Upper Silesia. The control group consisted of 20 children, who did not crawl in infancy. The control group consisted of 33 children who were crawling in infancy. The research consist: author’s questionnaire and Ozierecki’s Test of motor and visual-motor coordination. Questionnaire concern five parts of information about health, development, and current motor skills level of children. The second stage of the study – Ozierecki’s Test (interpreted by A. Barański) was used to assess the motor and visual-motor coordination level of 4-16 years old children.
Results. The group of crawling children had a higher level of visual-motor coordination, but only in one of the examined skills (swinging). The presence of crawling does not significantly affect the motor abilities of an older child. In the study group, it is noted that the higher the value of Apgar points obtained at birth, the higher the motor skills and motor coordination.
Key words:
crawling, motor coordination and visual-motor coordination
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Assessment of aerobic capacity levels and selected motor skills in children with excessive body weight

Agnieszka Ostrowska, Agata Grzyb, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata Lis, Anna Koralewska

A. Ostrowska, A. Grzyb, M. Domagalska-Szopa, M. Lis, A. Koralewska – Assessment of aerobic capacity levels and selected motor skills in children with excessive body weight. Fizjoterapia Polska 2020; 20(5);  72-83

Abstract

Introduction. Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is a serious problem of developmental age. It affects more and more children. Increasingly, children are consuming large amounts of processed and high-calorie food. Children move less and less because they spend their free time in front of the phone, TV or computer screen. A small amount of exercise promotes the development of excess body weight in children. Low physical activity also causes children not to improve their motor skills. In addition, many researchers point out the negative impact of excess child weight on their physical fitness.
Aim of the study. The aim of the study was an attempt to determine the level of selected motor skills in overweight and obese children and to determine the relationship between excess body weight in children and their motor skills.
Material and methods. The research group consisted of 25 children, including 12 girls and 13 boys aged 12 to 18 years. The subjects were diagnosed with overweight and simple obesity. The Romberg test, Tandem tests, medicine ball throw, toe-floor test, 40 or 60m run were used to assess the motor skills of children. To assess the children’s performance, the spiroergometric test, 6MWT = 6-minute walk test and the Borg scale after exercise were used. The “TANITA” weight was used to assess the body mass composition. The same test was performed in each child and the same tests were used to determine the level of selected motor skills, performance and body weight composition.
Results. The results obtained from the analysis of the results indicate the same development of motor skills in children with excessive and normal body weight. Moreover, the children showed the same exercise tolerance.

Key words:
excessive body weight, children, efficiency, motor skills
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Risk factors of neurodevolopmental disorders in preterm infant

Kamila Włodarczyk, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, María Eugenia Serrano

K. Włodarczyk, M. Domagalska-Szopa, M. Eugenia Serrano – Risk factors of neurodevolopmental disorders in preterm infant. Fizjoterapia Polska 2020; 20(4); 190-197

Abstract

Introduction. Preterm infants are at a greater risk for developmental disorders than their term peers. The most cases, it is not possible to determine the specific cause of the cerebral motor disorders. Review of literature indicate that they have no only one cause. Instead, it usually occurs due to a sequence of events or circumstances, so- called risk factor. The risks factors can happen during pregnancy and delivery, so they are usually are divided into following categories: 1) prenatal, 2) natal and 3) postnatal risk factors.
The aim of this study is to recognize the relationship between prematurity and the presence of other risk factors for the development of CMD, related to the course of pregnancy, the course of delivery and the condition of the child after birth.
Participants & Methods. Thirty premature infants from 3 to 5 months, who were qualified to SYNAGIS program included to the study. The present study collected data of burdens and clinical symptoms associated with preterm birth, i.e. the gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, maternal age, as well as the presence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors of motor disorders in preterm infant.
Results & conclusion. The obtained results confirmed that preterm babies are at a higher risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders. The obtained results additionally indicated a large share of postnatal factors related to the immaturity of the respiratory system, which is a directly result from preterm labor.

 

Key words:

prematurity, preterm infant, risk factors, developmental motor disorders

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Characteristics of lateralization in children aged 5-7 years

Sylwia Potępa, Aleksandra Czaplińska, Alicja Salwach, Lawia Szkoda, Andrzej Szopa, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa

S.Potępa, A. Czaplińska, A. Salwach, L. Szkoda, A. Szopa, M. Domagalska-Szopa – Characteristics of lateralization in children aged 5-7 years. Fizjoterapia Polska 2019; 19(1); 60-68

Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents an extensive class of symptoms manifested as deficiencies in such fields as communication, social development and stereotypical behavioural patterns. Autism symptoms appear in social interactions issues, mood disorders, somatosensory disorders, concentration problems. The conversion disorders are frequently diagnosed in autistic children. Maintaining the standing balance is an immensely important skill in the child’s development, which consists in controlling the centre of gravity over the support plane. Appropriate balance is necessary for successful performance of numerous daily actions. Retarded development of balance impedes the future motor development and affects the opportunity of the children’s involvement in interactions with peers.
The purpose of this paper was an impartial evaluation of balance skills in children with autism spectrum disorder.
Material and methods. 30 children 5-7 year-old with ASD, including 22 boys and 8 girls. Methods: The Scoring Form for Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale test was used for evaluation of the balance.
Results. The lowest results were obtained in the tandem walk and stand on one leg test. The test results varied in specific age groups, however, the differences were not significant. Substantial differences were displayed in tandem gait test for specific age groups.
Conclusions. In children with ASD disorders in balance skills occur.

Key words:
lateralization, functional asymmetry, side dominance

 

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