An evaluation of the effectiveness of two different thermal therapy procedures in the rehabilitation of patients with degenerative changes in the knee joint

Bożena Jasiak-Tyrkalska, Bogusław Frańczuk, Jolanta Jaworek, Daniela Mosurska

Bożena Jasiak-Tyrkalska, Bogusław Frańczuk, Jolanta Jaworek, Daniela Mosurska – An evaluation of the effectiveness of two different thermal therapy procedures in the rehabilitation of patients with degenerative changes in the knee joint. Fizjoterapia Polska 2004; 4(2); 157-162

Abstract

Background. The aim of our research was to evaluate and compare the analgesic effectiveness of thermal therapy in conjunction with magnetotherapy and active exercises without weight load to improve the functional efficiency of the knee joint with degenerative changes. Material and methods. The level of pain, range of movement, and strength of muscle groups in the knee joint were tested before and after rehabilitation in 48 patients, divided randomly into two groups of 24 people. Results. In both groups there was a reduction in the average level of reported pain, and in the flexion deficit in the knee joint. No changes were noted in the increase of average muscle strength in the flexors and extensors of the knee. Conclusions. In respect to analgesic action and improvement of function in a knee with degnerative changes, a rehabilitation program that includes local cryotherapy proved to be more effective that a program using Sollux lamp irradiation.

Key words:
gonarthrosis, pain, magnetotherapy, cryotherapy
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The possibilities of applications of the physical therapy in the spastic treatment

Sylwia Dziedzic, Anna Straburzyńska-Lupa

Sylwia Dziedzic, Anna Straburzyńska-Lupa – The possibilities of applications of the physical therapy in the spastic treatment. Fizjoterapia Polska 2004; 4(2); 93-99

Abstract

This article begins with a description of the pathophysiology and symptomatology of spasticity. The pathophysiology of spasticity is complex, depending on interactions between opening and closing, stimulating and inhibiting pathways and centers located both in the spine and above the spine. Spasticity results from dysfunction of the upper motor neuron, i.e. structures lying in the vicinity of the cerebral cortex, the subcortical regions, the brainstem, and the spinal cord, and the numerous connections between them. In the clinical picture of spasticity we can distinguish disturbances in the regulation of muscle tension and strength, difficulties in maintaining body posture, and the occurrence of spastic cramps and clonus. As a consequence of these symptoms the patient may experience pain and limb deformity. The article describes several different methods of evaluating spasticity (including a modified version of the 6-point Ashworth Scale). Based on an extensive review of the literature, the authors discuss various methods of managing spasticity, with particular attention to physicotherapy. Some of these techniques have a mechanism of action that is already well understood and constitute a valuable means to supplement the treatment of spasticity; others are only just being introduced to therapy or are still in the research phase. Among the techniques used in the treatment of spasticity the authors discuss kinesitherapy, thermotherapy, electrotherapy, and magnetotherapy.

Key words:
Physical Medicine, Cryotherapy, electrotherapy
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Influence of extremely low temperatures on selected human motor activities

Joanna Łuczak, Joanna Michalik

Joanna Łuczak, Joanna Michalik – Influence of extremely low temperatures on selected human motor activities. Fizjoterapia Polska 2006; 6(3); 206-211

Abstract
Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of extremely low temperatures (-100°C, -130°C, -160°C) on selected motor skills: flexibility, equilibrium, speed and dynamic abdominal muscles power. Material and methods. The study group covered 300 men, who permanently, by reason of their occupation, practice sports professionally. Participants were randomized into 3 groups attending to whole-body cryotherapy in following temperature: A -100°C, B -130°C and C -160°C. During each procedure patients were treated for 2 minutes in the cryochamber and then by 20 minutes exercise therapy. Before and after program consisted of 10 procedures 4 motor skills of patients were estimated and results were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon test. Differences of motor skills were calculated separately for each person and findings of each study group were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. No statistically significant differences were found after matching of flexibility test results between groups treated in 3 different temperatures. Greatest improvement of equilibrium was noticed in group of patients attending to procedures in -160°C temperature (p<0.01). Change of speed was highest in the group of patients treated in -100°C, but average values was twice upper from other groups (p<0.0001). Increase of dynamic abdominal muscles power was also highest in group A — values were twice high from group C (p<0.001). Conclusions. Whole-body cryotherapy positively effects on selected human motor skills. The results of the short-term study not allowed choosing clearly from used temperatures which induced more positive improvement. A long-term research and the economic calculation are necessary to perform complete analysis.

Key words:
cryotherapy, whole-body cryotherapy, cryochamber, human motor skills

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Effect of general cryotherapy on subjective physical indices

Aleksandr Baranov, A. V. Apreleva

Aleksandr Baranov, A. V. Apreleva – Effect of general cryotherapy on subjective physical indices. Fizjoterapia Polska 2008; 8(3); 351-354

Abstract
Cryogenic therapy exerts extensive stimulant effects. Its successful application in medicine provides the basis for using it as a stimulant in sport. At the St. Petersburg State University of Refrigeration and Food Technologies, the response times to a color stimulus of a group of people undergoing general sports training were tested before a cryogenic therapy procedure and over 4 hours after the procedure. The results showed that cryogenic therapy averaged response times, and so it cannot be used as a pre-competition stimulant. At the same time the results showed that cryogenic therapy can be used to intensify the training process.
Key words:
Cryotherapy
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Changes in knee joint thermograms following local cryotherapy combined with various physiotherapy regimens

Magdalena Wilk, Rafał Trąbka, Zbigniew Śliwiński

Magdalena Wilk, Rafał Trąbka, Zbigniew Śliwiński – Changes in knee joint thermograms following local cryotherapy combined with various physiotherapy regimens. Fizjoterapia Polska 2008; 8(3); 267-271

Abstract
Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cryotherapy and physiotherapy regimens in patients with indications for use of these procedures in the knee joint region or knee joints. Material and methods. The study was performed in the Cracow Rehabilitation Centre in 2008. The study involved a group of 38 patients who underwent cryotherapy of the knee joint region. The patients were dMded into two groups. Group 1 included patients who performed lower limb exercises immediately after the cryotherapy procedure, and patients in group 2 performed exercises 30 minutes following the cryotherapy procedure. Changes in thermograms were recorded in all patients. Results. Mean temperature in the affected knee joint before treatment was x=30.19°C in group 1 and 31.46°C in group 2. The differences between the study groups revealed in examination 2 were also not statistically significant. Examination 3 showed signi-ficant differences. The mean value of the temperature range was x=28.54C in Group 1 and 23.38°C in Group 2. The last exami-nation, performed 30 minutes after the completion of the cryogenic therapy procedure, showed a mean temperature of the treated knee joint of x=28.99°C in Group 1 and x=29.43C in Group 2. Conclusions. Tissue temperature in the knee joint region increased at a slower rate in patients who did not undergo kinesi-therapy immediately after cryotherapy of that region.
Key words:
knee joint, cryotherapy, thermovision, physiotherapy
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Assessment of changes in the excitability of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve caused by localised cooling procedures

Edyta Jarzębska, Anna Polak, Janusz Kubacki, Krzysztof Gieremek

Edyta Jarzębska, Anna Polak, Janusz Kubacki, Krzysztof Gieremek – Assessment of changes in the excitability of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve caused by localised cooling procedures. Fizjoterapia Polska 2009; 9(1); 39-50

Abstract
Background. The reasons for taking advantage of low temperatures for therapeutic purposes include their anaesthetic and anti-inflammatory effeets. The present stucly aimed to assess changes in the excitability of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) resulting from local cryotherapeutic procedures. Materials and methods. The investigation involved 108 healthy volunteers aged 20-25 years and randomly assigned to three groups (A, B and C). Immediately before the cryotherapy procedure, skin temperature was measured in the area innen/ated by the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve in all participants. The chronaxy of this nerve was also determined. Groups A and B subse-ąuently received cooling procedures at -10°C with a gel compress applied to the arm and forearm area (i. e. the area innen/ated by the MACN). In Group A, the compress was applied for 20 minutes and in Group B for 4 minutes. In Group C this area was sub-jected to a 2-minute cooling procedure using liquid nitrogen vapour at -160C. Chronaximetry and skin temperature measurements were repeated immediately on completion of the cooling procedure and 20 minutes later. Results. A statistically significant prolongation of chronaxy in relation to its baseline values was obsen/ed in Group A both immediately after the procedure and 20 minutes later. In Group B, statistically significant prolongation of chronaxy was seen between the values obtained immediately after the procedure and those measured before the procedure. In group C, chronaxy was signifi-cantly longer 20 minutes after the procedure vis-a-vis its baseline value. Conclusions. All cooling procedures applied reduced excitability of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nen/e. Decreased exci-tability was maintained over the longest period in Groups A and C.
Key words:
cutaneous nerve, excitability, cryotherapy
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The evaluation of the effectiveness of a cryotherapy treatment in patients with gonarthrosis

Kamila Wieczorek

Kamila Wieczorek – The evaluation of the effectiveness of a cryotherapy treatment in patients with gonarthrosis. Fizjoterapia Polska 2021; 21(2); 144-153

Abstract
The purpose of the study. The purpose of this study is to describe the results of the research on the patients’ evaluation regarding complaints and difficulties in their daily life, as well as on the assessment of their general health condition in terms of the rehabilitation of gonarthrosis before and after physiotherapy treatments, with and without the use of cryotherapy. Materials and methods. The research was carried out with the use of a survey questionnaire on a group of 40 patients. Each patient experienced osteoarthritis in at least one knee joint. The questionnaire consisted of questions related to the type of complaints and functioning difficulties in patients with gonarthrosis before and after rehabilitation, and to the type of performed treatments with emphasis put on cryotherapy and the assessment of general health improvement in patients after rehabilitation. Conclusions. According to the patients participating in the research, the improvement in rehabilitation of gonarthrosis with cryotherapy treatments is not greater than with other physiotherapy treatments.
Key words:
Cryotherapy, cold therapy, gonarthrosis
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An investigation of the effects of local thermotherapy on neuromuscular excitability in healthy people

Anna Kamykowska, Cezary Kucio, Piotr Król, Ryszard Zarzeczny, Robert Roczniok

Anna Kamykowska, Cezary Kucio, Piotr Król, Ryszard Zarzeczny, Robert Roczniok – An investigation of the effects of local thermotherapy on neuromuscular excitability in healthy people. Fizjoterapia Polska 2011; 11(3); 241-252

Abstract
The goal of the investigation was to assess neuromuscular excitability changes brought about by local cooling and warming procedures in healthy people divided into comparative groups A, B, C and D were tested for neuromuscular excitability changes. In each group, the subjects’ skin temperature was measured above the median nerve and the excitability of the flexor pollicis longus muscle stimulated indirectly via the median nerve was assessed using chronaxiemetry. Then the groups of subjects underwent respective procedures. In group A, the subjects received a 12-minute cooling procedure with gel packs at -10ºC. In group B, the subjects were applied a 2-minute cooling procedure using liquid nitrogen vapours at the temperature of –160ºC. In group C, microwave diathermy (2450 MHz) was applied to the subjects for 12 minutes. The subjects in group D received a 12-minute shortwave diathermy procedure (27 MHz). Skin temperature and chronaxie were measured again as soon as the procedures were complete and then the measurements were repeated for the third and last time 20 minutes later. Cooling procedures with gels at the temperature of -10ºC and liquid nitrogen vapours at the temperature of -160ºC as well as shortwave diathermy at 280 W inhibit neuromuscular excitability. This effect is maintained for at least 20 minutes following the procedure. Heating with microwave diathermy at 100 W does not reduce neuromuscular excitability.
Key words:
Cryotherapy, thermotherapy, Diathermy, Neuromuscular stimulation, neuromuscular excitability
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Assessment of the effectiveness of local cryotherapy in treatment of gonarthrosis

Joanna Fidut-Wrońska, Robert Latosiewicz, Karolina Janikowska, Krzysztof Sokołowski

Joanna Fidut-Wrońska, Robert Latosiewicz, Karolina Janikowska, Krzysztof Sokołowski – Assessment of the effectiveness of local cryotherapy in treatment of gonarthrosis. Fizjoterapia Polska 2012; 12(3); 241-250

Abstract
The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of cryotherapy combined with other physical therapy methods. The study group consisted of 50 patients with gonarthrosis, treated by means of local cryotherapy and other physical therapy methods. The control group included 38 matched patients with gonarthrosis, treated with the same physical therapy methods, but without cryotherapy. Evaluation methods were based on the authors` tailored questionnaire, VAS scale and WOMAC questionnaire. The physical examination consisted of the measurements of body height and weight, the range of motion (ROM) in the knee joints and knee circumference and a series of functional tests. The results indicate that ROM of the knee joints increased by 11.3° in the study group and by 3.1° in the control group. The circumference was reduced by 1.1 cm in study group and by 0.4 cm in control group. The value of WOMAC index was diminished by 17.3% in the study group and by 11.9% in control group. After the treatment, the study group covered 8.7 stairs more during ascending and 9.2 more during descending whereas the control group covered 3.9 and 4.3 stairs respectively. Similarly, after the treatment patients from the study group did 5.5 squats more compared to 1.7 squats performed by the control group subjects. Cryotherapy combined with other physical therapy methods in treatment of gonarthrosis has better effects than application of physical therapy methods only, without cryotherapy.
Key words:
arthrosis, physical therapy, gonarthrosis, Cryotherapy
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Wartość terapeutyczna krioterapii miejscowej w leczeniu pacjentów z gonartrozą

Łukasz Kopacz, Anna Lubkowska, Iwona Bryczkowska, Piotr Skomro, Elżbieta Kubala, Marek Kiljański, Danuta Lietz-Kijak

Ł. Kopacz, A. Lubkowska, I. Bryczkowska, P. Skomro, E. Kubala, M. Kiljański, D. Lietz-Kijak – Wartość terapeutyczna krioterapii miejscowej w leczeniu pacjentów z gonartrozą. FP 2013; 13(4); 31-36

Streszczenie
Wstęp. Celem przeprowadzonych badań była ocena wpływu zabiegów krioterapii miejscowej na zakres ruchu w stawie kolanowym u pacjentów z chorobą zwyrodnieniową stawów. Dodatkowo analizowano potencjalne zmiany w dolegliwościach bólowych pacjentów. Materiał i metody. Grupa badana liczyła 50-ciu pacjentów i była jednorodna pod względem schorzenia. W badaniu wzięło udział 39 kobiet i 11 mężczyzn. Pacjenci poddani byli 10-ciu codziennym zabiegom krioterapii miejscowej na okolicę stawu kolanowego. Przed przystąpieniem do krioterapii, pacjenci zostali poddani badaniom antropometrycznym oraz wyliczono wskaźniki BMI. Został zebrany wywiad odnośnie chorób współistniejącychi zbadano dolegliwości bólowe według skali VAS. U wszystkich badanych wykonano pomiar zakresu ruchów w stawie kolanowym za pomocą goniometru. Został on wykonany przed rozpoczęciem zabiegów oraz po ich zakończeniu. Wynik. U wszystkich pacjentów, poddanych serii zabiegów można stwierdzić znaczną poprawę w zakresie ruchu zgięcia i wyprostu w stawie kolanowym. Analizując dolegliwości bólowe oceniane za pomocą skali VAS, po zakończeniu serii zabiegów wykazano znaczne zmniejszenie wartości wskazywanych przez badanych. Rozpatrując zakres ruchu zgięcia w stawie kolanowym w obu grupach, zarówno z rozpoznaniem choroby zwyrodnieniowej stawów kolanowych oraz choroby zwyrodnieniowej wielostawowej, po serii zabiegów krioterapii miejscowej ruch znacznie się poprawił, natomiast zakres ruchu wyprostu w stawie kolanowym polepszył się w grupie z rozpoznaniem choroby zwyrodnieniowej wielostawowej. Wnioski. Krioterapia miejscowa jest korzystną metodą, redukującą dolegliwości bólowe oraz wpływającą na poprawę zakresu ruchów w stawie kolanowym u pacjentów z gonartrozą.

Słowa kluczowe:
zimnolecznictwo, gonartroza, leczenie zimnem

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