Comparing between the efficacy of underwater treadmill and over-ground treadmill training program on trunk kinematics in stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial

Zeinab M. Abdelrehim, Nahed A. Salem, Hossam M. El khatib, Mahmoud Y. Elzanaty

Zeinab M. Abdelrehim, Nahed A. Salem, Hossam M. El khatib, Mahmoud Y. Elzanaty – Comparing between the efficacy of underwater treadmill and over-ground treadmill training program on trunk kinematics in stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial. Fizjoterapia Polska 2021; 21(5); 14-18

Abstract
Background. Gait disorder is a common clinical problem for stroke survivors. Trunk movement, control and symmetry are important prerequisite for gait. Trunk kinematics rarely investigated during gait cycle. Objective. This study was conducted to compare between the efficacy of underwater treadmill training program (TTP) and over-ground (TTP) in improving trunk kinematics during the gait cycle of stroke patients. Study design. randomized control trial. Methods. Forty male patients suffering from post-stroke gait deficits were assigned randomly into two equal groups: study group (A): received underwater treadmill training program. Control group (B) received over-ground treadmill training program. Patients of both groups were assessed for trunk range of motion (ROM) during gait cycle using slow motion video and goniometer iPad application. Assessment was done before and after four weeks of treatment for both groups. Results. the comparison between groups post treatment showed a significant increase in trunk lateral flexion toward affected and significant decrease in trunk lateral flexion toward unaffected during stance phase with increase in trunk symmetry between both sides in the study group (A) compared with that of control group (B). Conclusion. under water TTP is more effective than over-ground TTP on improving trunk kinematics during the gait cycle of stroke patients.
Key words:
stroke, trunk kinematics, underwater treadmill, over-ground treadmill
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Assessment of the effects of therapy with the use of the Fourier M2 neurological smart robot in post-stroke patients with hemiplegia

Igor Świerkowski, Marcin Krajczy, Ewa Jach, Piotr Kęsicki, Katarzyna Bogacz, Jacek Łuniewski, Jan Szczegielniak

I. Świerkowski, M. Krajczy, E. Jach, P. Kęsicki, K. Bogacz, J. Łuniewski, J. Szczegielniak – Assessment of the effects of therapy with the use of the Fourier M2 neurological smart robot in post-stroke patients with hemiplegia. Fizjoterapia Polska 2021; 21(4); 210-220

Abstract
Objective. The objective of the study is to assess the effect of upper limb therapy with the use of the Fourier M2 smart robot in post-stroke patients with right and left hemiplegia. Material and methods. The study included 13 post-stroke patients with hemiplegia. The study group consisted of 11 men and 2 women. Eight patients experienced a left-sided stroke and five patients experienced a right-sided stroke. The patients were assessed using the Fourier M2 robot. Inclusion criteria for the study were the occurrence of a stroke, hemiplegia, dysfunction of the upper limb, and restricted mobility. The patients underwent a 10-day therapy with the use of the Fourier M2 smart robot, which is used for diagnostics, planning and conducting therapy. Statistical calculations were performed using the Statscloud application. Results: On the first day, the caloric values were lower (Mdn = 1.60) than on the last day (Mdn = 3.60), which proves the effects of using a smart robot in the neurorehabilitation of post-stroke patients. The Wilcoxon test shows a statistically significant difference: z = −3.18; p = 0.003, r = −0.62. On the first day, the result was lower (Mdn = 1,231.00) compared to the last day (Mdn = 1,591.00), which proves the effects of using a smart robot in the neurorehabilitation of post-stroke patients. The Wilcoxon test shows a statistically significant difference: z = −2.48; p = 0.018, r = −0.49. On the last day, the score values are higher (M = 196.85, SD = 93.14) than on the first day (M = 137.46, SD = 99.96), which proves the effects of using a smart robot in the neurorehabilitation of post-stroke patients. The T-test shows that the difference was statistically significant: t(12) = −3.22; p = 0.007, Cohen dav = 0.62, observed force = 0.32. With a random pair of values, there is a 73.08% chance that the last day’s value would be higher than the first day’s value. On the first day, the distance values were lower (Mdn = 23.00) than on the last day (Mdn = 52.80), which proves the effects of using a smart robot in the neurorehabilitation of post-stroke patients. The Wilcoxon test shows that the difference was statistically significant: z = −3.11; p = 0.003, r = −0.61. On the first day, the average speed values were lower (Mdn = 4.50) than on the last day (Mdn = 4.60), which proves the effects of using a smart robot in the neurorehabilitation of post-stroke patients. The Wilcoxon test shows that the difference is statistically significant: z = −2.76; p = 0.009, r = −0.54. On the first day, the proportion of active movement was higher (M = 27.25, SD = 21.72) than on the last day (M = 25.54, SD = 24.73), which does not prove the effects of using a smart robot in neurorehabilitation stroke patients. The T-test shows that the difference was not statistically significant: t(12) = 0.31, p = 0.758, Cohen dav = 0.07, observed force = 0.04. In the case of a pair of randomly selected values, there is a 52.93% chance that the values on the first day would be higher than on the last day.
Conclusions. 1. The use of the Fourier M2 smart robot does not have a positive effect on increasing the proportion of active movement in post-stroke patients with hemiplegia. 2. The use of the Fourier M2 smart robot has a positive effect on the improvement of the average speed of movement in post-patients with hemiplegia.
3. The use of the Fourier M2 smart robot has a positive effect on increasing the functionality of the upper limb in post-stroke patients with hemiplegia.
Key words:
stroke, neurology, robot, upper limb, hemiplegia
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An evaluation of the effectiveness of magnetotherapy as a factor supporting rehabilitation on the basis of selected biomechanic and psychotechnical indices

Mirosław Janiszewski, Anna Błaszczyk

Mirosław Janiszewski, Anna Błaszczyk – An evaluation of the effectiveness of magnetotherapy as a factor supporting rehabilitation on the basis of selected biomechanic and psychotechnical indices. Fizjoterapia Polska 2001; 1(1); 39-42

Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of longterm magnetic field stimulation on the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients and to determine how quickly these patients gain locomotor efficiency. A group of 180 patients 50-70 years old after stroke received rehabilitation and low frequency magnetic field stimulation. As a criterion for evaluation purposes the authors used selected biomechanical and psychotechnical indices. The study shows that magnetotherapy in post-stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation has a positive effect in the improvement of muscle function, motor coordination indices, and some biomechanical parameters (strength under dynamic and static circumstances).

Key words:
Stroke, magnetic fields, Rehabilitation

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Thermovisual evaluation of vascular behavior in the paretic upper limb after local cryostimulation in stroke patients

Zbigniew Śliwiński, Piotr Plaza

Zbigniew Śliwiński, Piotr Plaza – Thermovisual evaluation of vascular behavior in the paretic upper limb after local cryostimulation in stroke patients. Fizjoterapia Polska 2002; 2(2); 112-117

Abstract
Background. Stroke is the third most common cause of death, one of the most common causes of handicap, and the most common cause of disability among persons older than 40. Each year 4.6 million people around the world die from strokes, including 3.2 million in developing countries and 1.2 million in highly industrialized countries. In view of the high morbidity rate and the serious consequences of stroke, in the form of limb paresis, the authors decided to use a thermovision camera to check vascular reactions in the paretic limb by evaluating temperature changes on the skin subsequent to cryostimulation by liquid nitrogen vapors. Material and methods. Our research involved 28 patients with an average age of 61.3 years. The procedure was performed on the forearm of the paretic upper limb, which was cooled for 6 minutes (from the hand to the elbow cavity, the dorsal surface and the palm surface). Thermovision images were made 5 times for each patient. Results. The authors observed that as a result of the procedure the temperature of the cooled limb went down 12°C, and 2.6°C in the other limb. Conclusions. The results cannot be easily interpreted. In the authors’ opinion, the temperature reduction in the limb that was not cooled results from contralateralization of the consensual reflex. The present study is a preliminary report describing the phenomenon we observed.

Key words:
Stroke, Cryostimulation, thermovision, vascular behavior

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Constraint-induced movement therapy in the rehabilitation of stroke patients

Janusz Otfinowski, Bożena Jasiak-Tyrkalska, Agnieszka Bogunia, Beata Buda

Janusz Otfinowski, Bożena Jasiak-Tyrkalska, Agnieszka Bogunia, Beata Buda – Constraint-induced movement therapy in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Fizjoterapia Polska 2004; 4(1); 19-24

Abstract

Background. This article presents some preliminary results from the rehabilitation of patients with impaired hand function after stroke. The basis for therapy was the method introduced by Taub, known as Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT), which involves the temporary constraint of the healthy upper limb, with simultaneous intensive motor rehabilitation of the dysfunctional limb. Material and methods. Our research involved 10 patients treated in the Rehabilitation Clinic at the Jagiellonian University College of Medicine for post-stroke hemiparesis. There were 5 men and 5 women in this group, ranging in age from 57 to 77 years (ave. 66.5). The time since onset ranged from 1 to 50 months (ave. 11.4 months). CIMT was used in all patients. Results. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation all the patients required less time to perform manual tests, and showed marked functional improvement in the affected hand. Conclusions. The CIMT method is effective in the rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis.

Key words:
Stroke, rehabilitation of the hand, CIMT
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Selected demographic and clinical factors and the efficacy of the Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) of the hand after stroke

Bożena Jasiak-Tyrkalska, Janusz Otfinowski, Beata Buda

Bożena Jasiak-Tyrkalska, Janusz Otfinowski, Beata Buda – Selected demographic and clinical factors and the efficacy of the Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) of the hand after stroke. Fizjoterapia Polska 2007; 7(1); 21-28

Abstract

Background. The authors attempted to evaluate the effect of selected demographic and clinical factors on the efficacy of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) in improving the mobility of a paretic hand following cerebral stroke. The analysis focussed on factors such as age, gender, side of paresis and time elapsed since stroke. It is commonly known that post-stroke rehabilitation is relatively difficult and poses a challenge not only to the therapeutic team, but also to the patient’s family. Despite activities geared towards improved mobility, satisfactory effects cannot always be achieved. Until recently, physiotherapy was mainly geared towards the compensation of deficits rather than functional restoration. Nowadays, specialised neurological rehabilitation centres introduce novel methods based on the concept of brain adaptability, aimed primarily at functional restoration. The CIMT method is being used more and more frequently. It can be succinctly defined as a strategy for the activation of paretic parts of the body through constraining or totally preventing the use of their healthy counterparts. Material and methods. The study group comprised 21 persons (11 women and 10 men) following cerebral stroke. Mean patient age was 65 years. The efficacy end-point for the rehabilitation approach was time required to carry out 10 basic everyday activities using the affected hand. This assessment was carried out four times: at baseline, after two weeks of intensive exercise in a hospital rehabilitation ward as well as at 4 and 12 weeks of independent practice at home. Results. The therapeutic programme lead to a highly significant (p<0.001) improvement of the performance of the motor function impaired hand. Subgroup analysis did not demonstrate any significant influence of individual factors on the efficacy of the method used to improve hand motor function after cerebral stroke. Conclusions. Regardless of the age and gender of cerebral stroke patients, the CIMT method demonstrated significant efficacy in improving hand motor function. Time elapsed since stroke has no impact on the improvement of the paretic hand using the C1MT method. Regardless of the affected side, the method activates the motor functions of the paretic hand.

Key words:
stroke, improvement of hand mobility, CIMT
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Prognostic efficacy of Berg Balance Test in assessing the risk of fall in patients after stroke

Waldemar Brola, Małgorzata Fudala, Jan Czernicki

Waldemar Brola, Małgorzata Fudala, Jan Czernicki – Prognostic efficacy of Berg Balance Test in assessing the risk of fall in patients after stroke. Fizjoterapia Polska 2009; 9(1); 31-38

Abstract
Background. The risk of fali within the first year after a cerebral stroke amounts to approximately 40%. Numerous attempts have been made to propose a simple, yet sensitive and specific test to facilitate effective identification of patients at a particularly high risk of fall. The present study therefore aimed to assess the risk of fall among post-stroke patients undergoing physical rehabilitation with the Berg Test (Berg Functional Balance Scale). Material and methods. A total of 312 patients treated initially at the Stroke Ward and later at the Department of Physical Rehabilitation and attending the Vascular Disease Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital in Końskie in 2004 were followed up over 12 months. Each patient was assessed during the initial rehabilitation period and then allocated to one of four risk groups depending on his/her score in the Berg Test. Every subsequent fali was recorded together with a brief description of any consequences. Results. 119 patients (35%) fell at least once during the 12-month period, with 36 (11.5%) sustaining serious injuries as a result. The majority of the falls (78 patients) occurred in Berg Group IV (highest risk) patients, who also sustained multiple falls and the most serious consequences. The respective number of incidents in the other groups was 24 falls in Group III, 15 falls in Group II, and only 2 falls in Group I. Conclusions. The Berg Test appears to be a simple, reliable and sensitive instrument for identifying patients most at risk of sustaining an accidental fali. Ensuring particular care for those patients may help them avoid serious consequences of falls and enhance overall rehabilitation outcomes.
Key words:
stroke, falls, risk factors, Berg Balance Scale
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Subjective assessment of the effects of different approaches to rehabilitation of patients after cerebral stroke

Tomasz Wolny, Edward Saulicz, Rafał Gnat, Mirosław Kokosz, Michał Kuszewski, Andrzej Myśliwiec

Tomasz Wolny, Edward Saulicz, Rafał Gnat, Mirosław Kokosz, Michał Kuszewski, Andrzej Myśliwiec – Subjective assessment of the effects of different approaches to rehabilitation of patients after cerebral stroke. Fizjoterapia Polska 2009; 9(3); 223-231

Abstract
Background. Paying attention to the individual needs of the patient during treatment planning is becoming an important element of contemporary rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. The patient should not only be the recipient, but also a co-author of the programme of rehabilitation administered to him or her. The study hypothesis was that the type of rehabilitation treatment would influence the patient’s subjective evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation. Material and methods. The study involved a group of 64 stroke patients. All subjects were divided randomly into three groups (A, B and C). Subjective assessment of the efficacy of rehabilitation was based on a specially prepared questionnaire. Patients were followed up for about 21 days, during which period they were administered comprehensive rehabilitation. Group A received traditional post-stroke therapy. The rehabilitation programme for Group B included individual kinesiotherapy based on the PNF method. The programme for Group C comprised individual kinesiotherapy based on the PNF method supplemented with tensing neuromobilisations of peripheral nerves of the paretic upper extremity. Results. Overall, the highest average number of points (x = 11.5394), corresponding to the most marked subjective impro -vement, was recorded in Group C, while the least marked effect was noted in Group A (x = 8.1751). Conclusions. The subjective assessment of the effects of rehabilitation treatment correlated significantly with the type of rehabilitation administered.
Key words:
self-assessment, physiotherapy, stroke, therapeutic effects
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Factors influencing the incidence of shoulder pain in post-stroke patients

Teresa Pop, Agnieszka Dziedzic, Katarzyna Łach-Pop

Teresa Pop, Agnieszka Dziedzic, Katarzyna Łach-Pop – Factors influencing the incidence of shoulder pain in post-stroke patients. Fizjoterapia Polska 2010; 10(2); 103-112

Abstract
Pain and functional impairment of the paretic shoulder are a frequent complication in post-stroke patients. The pain is mostly localised to the glenohumeral joint, but sometimes radiates to the upper arm and, infrequently, to the forearm. The paper aims at assessing the incidence of shoulder joint pain in post-stroke patients, and at investigating the predisposing factors. Material and method. The study group consisted of 81 stroke survivors (41 females and 40 males) hospitalized due to stroke in the Stroke Unit of the Neurology Ward and in the Rehabilitation Ward.The study used a questionnaire to obtain characteristics of the study group, a VAS scale to assess pain intensity, as well as the Ashworth scale and Barthel index. Shoulder joint pain occurred in 58% of the participants. Mean pain intensity was 5 according to the VAS scale. Muscle tone in the upper extremity in the study group averaged at 2 in the Ashworth scale. Among those suffering from shoulder pain, 53% experienced it in the morning.
Key words:
stroke, complications, shoulder, pain
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Evaluation of the effectiveness of Butler’s neuromobilisations in reducing disorders of stereognosis of impaired upper extremity in late-stage stroke patients

Tomasz Wolny, Edward Saulicz, Rafał Gnat

Tomasz Wolny, Edward Saulicz, Rafał Gnat – Evaluation of the effectiveness of Butler’s neuromobilisations in reducing disorders of stereognosis of impaired upper extremity in late-stage stroke patients. Fizjoterapia Polska 2010; 10(2); 95-102

Abstract
Background: A review of contemporary literature indicates that the rehabilitation of stroke patients is chiefly based on reeducation and compensation techniques addressing motor deficits, even though pure motor hemiparesis occurs very rarely. We assumed that tensional neuromobilisations of the impaired upper extremity in late-stage post-stroke patients influence disorders of stereognosis (tactile perception of natural objects)Material and method: The study involved a group of 64 stroke patients. The subjects were divided randomly into two subgroups (A and B). To assess tactile perception, all patients had to identify 10 commonly used objects by touch. During the 21-day follow-up, all patients were subjected to comprehensive rehabilitation. The therapeutic programme for Group A included selected physical modalities and individual kinesiotherapy based on the PNF method. The treatment in Group B additionally included tensional neuromobilisations of peripheral nerves of the impaired upper extremity. Results: Analysis of variance showed significant variation only for the test measurement factor (p &lt;0.01), which was due to significant intra-group differences in Group B (p&lt;0.05; Tukey test).Conclusions: The greatest improvement in the assessment of the tactile perception of everyday objects was obtained in the group which received PNF therapy supplemented with neuromobilisations of peripheral nerves of the impaired upper extremity.
Key words:
stereognosis, physiotherapy, stroke, therapeutic effects
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