Marek Woszczak, Katarzyna Bogacz, Magdalena Józefowicz-Korczyńska, Joanna Kałuża-Pawłowska, Jan Szczegielniak
M. Woszczak, K. Bogacz, M. Józefowicz-Korczyńska, J. Kałuża-Pawłowska, J. Szczegielniak – Evaluation of the Efficacy of Local Cryotherapy in Patients with the Degenerative Knee Joint Disease. FP 2017; 17(2); 48-59
Introduction. Pain, swelling and deformities of joints are the typical symptoms of a degenerative disease. The disease affects more than 60% of persons over 60 years of age. Due to this condition, every thirteenth person takes painkillers on a daily basis. Etiology of the degenerative knee joint disease comprises most often of micro traumas, injuries, overstrain, previous inflammatory conditions, improper weight distribution and congenital anomalies in the joint structure.
Research Goal. The aim of our study has been to evaluate the efficacy of local cryotherapy in patients with the degenerative knee joint disease.
Materials and Methods. The study has been carried out on a group of 86 persons, 20 to 45 years old, treated in the Rehabilitation Unit of the University Clinical Hospital No. 1 of the Medical University in Łódź. The patients have been randomly assigned to group A (40 persons) and B (46 persons.) In all the patients, there have been diagnosed degenerative changes in knee joints. In the study participated persons professionally active, able to walk.
Prior to application of treatment, all the patients were interviewed, had undergone physical and clinical examinations and were asked to fill out the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster) questionnaire. An important purpose of the interview was to gather information about the patients’ lifestyle, their diet, addictions, physical activity and the potential epidemiological threats arising from the type of work they do.
Before and after completing the cycle of 10 treatment sessions, the patients were also examined physically by visual inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation, measurements of lengths and perimeters, testing of muscle strength and functional tests. The patients were asked to anonymously fill out a questionnaire.
For all the patients were applied same treatments: ultrasounds, magnetic field, self-assisted exercises, knee joint load relief exercises. The differentiating factor in the study were the knee joint local cryotherapy treatments applied additionally for patients in group B. The evaluation was made on the basis of examinations before and after the physiotherapy treatments.
Results. Based on the examinations it can be concluded, that there has been achieved statistically significant reduction in pain according to VAS in both, group A and group B. There has also been a reduction in exudate and temperature of the joint.. There has also been registered an increase in the mobility ranges. Based on results of the test of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, we have also observed an improvement in functional capacities in executing daily activities, i.e. for example climbing/descending stairs or putting on/taking off socks.
Conclusions. While interpreting the results, it has been observed that the degree of improvement in the above listed factors in group B, in which the additional local cryotherapy was applied, was statistically significantly higher than in group A, in which the treatment was not used.
cryotherapy, degenerative knee joint disease, physiotherapy
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