Katarzyna Adamczewska, Marzena Wiernicka, Łukasz Michałowski, Lech Furmaniuk, Magdalena Goliwąs, Marta Flis-Masłowska, Jacek Lewandowski
K. Adamczewska, M. Wiernicka, Ł. Michałowski, L. Furmaniuk, M. Goliwąs, M. Flis-Masłowska, J. Lewandowski – Angle of trunk rotation in 10-year-old primary school children in Poznań. FP 2017; 17(3); 96-102
Introduction. Changes in spinal geometry should be assessed in three planes, and accounting for the movement of spinous processes. An assessment of the angle of trunk rotation allows for early and non-invasive detection of scoliosis and its prevention.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess the angle of trunk rotation (ATR) in the population of 10-year-old primary school children in Poznań.
Materials and methods. The participants included 1533 children aged 10 years (759 girls and 774 boys). The ATR was measured with the Bunnell scoliometer at three levels of the spine: Th1-Th4, Th5-Th12, Th12-L4. On the basis of the measurements conducted in this study, a group of children with ATR at 0, 1-3˚, 4-6˚ and ≥ 7˚ (including rotation to the left and to the right) was identified.
Results: The lowest values of ATR in both groups (boys and girls) were found at the level of Th1-Th4 with ATR ≥ 7˚ occurring in 0.2% of the participants. 4% of all participants also presented with a clinical suspicion of lateral curvature of the spine. Values of the ATR measured at the Th5-Th12 and Th12-L4 levels increased considerably. At the Th level of the spine, 10% of the participants presented with a clinical suspicion of scoliosis, and the diagnosis was confirmed for 2.5% of all primary school children. At the lowest level of the spine, 9% of the participants were identified as being at an increased risk of scoliosis, and 2.7% of children exhibited an ATR ≥ 7˚.
1. The highest angle of trunk rotation (ATR ≥ 7˚) was found in girls at the Th5-12.level of the spine. Both genders exhibited primarily rotation to the right.
2. Scoliosis poses a significant diagnostic challenge in a school environment. If left untreated, it increases the risk of pathological changes in the trunk and disease progression.
3. The Bunnell scoliometer allows for early and non-invasive assessment of the angle of trunk rotation, and should be permanently included in screening procedures.
4. Using appropriate instruments for posture assessment is necessary for diagnosing musculoskeletal disorders accurately.
angle of trunk rotation, scoliometer, scoliosis, posture in children
Magdalena Goliwąs, Piotr Kocur, Marzena Wiernicka, Ewa Kamińska, Jacek Lewandowski
M. Goliwąs, P. Kocur, M. Wiernicka, E. Kamińska, J. Lewandowski – Effect of sensorimotor foot stimulation on the body postural, function and load of the lower limb in patients in the late phase after stroke. FP 2017; 17(2); 24-35
There are few studies which assess the impact of stimulation of the foot in after-stroke patients. The study involved an assessment of the effects of sensorimotor foot stimulation in patients after ischemic stroke. Patients (post-stroke duration > 1 year) were randomized to the experimental group (n = 20) and control group (n = 17). Both groups completed a standard six-week rehabilitation programme. In the experimental group, the standard rehabilitation programme was supplemented by sensorimotor foot stimulation training. The analysis included: postural stability, balance, motor function, muscle tone, sensation. In both groups have not significantly changed the following parameters: center of foot pressure (COP) area and COP length. Significant changes have been observed in the experimental group with and without visual control for the following parameters: total load of lower limb directly and indirectly covered by a stroke. Symmetry Index has shown a reduction ratio in the experimental group by 13.2% in the test with and by 15.1% without visual control. In the experimental group significant functional changes have been demonstrated in motor function and balance as well as in the assessment of muscle tone within the ankle. Sensorimotor foot stimulation with standard rehabilitation procedure is a better form of physiotherapy than use standard rehabilitation only.
Sensorimotor foot stimulation, Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale, Symmetry Index
Marzena Wiernicka, Ewa Kamińska, Dawid Łochyński,
Elżbieta Hurnik, Łukasz Michałowski, Daniel Choszczewski, Piotr Kocur, Marta Flis-Masłowska, Zbigniew Śliwiński, Jacek Lewandowski
FP 2014; 14(2); 68-76
Wstęp. Poczucie równowagi jest właściwością zależną od wielu cech układu nerwowego i całego aparatu ruchu, przy czym wysoki poziom poczucia równowagi obrotowej człowiek osiąga około 6 roku życia, jednak równowagi statycznej oraz dynamicznej dopiero około 12 roku życia.
Cel pracy. Określenie różnic dymorficznych stabilności posturalnej w warunkach statyki u dzieci będących w tym samym przedziale wiekowym.
Materiał i metoda. Materiał: 450 dzieci, wiek 9-12 lat, w tym 235 dziewcząt i 215 chłopców. Metoda badań: z wykorzystaniem urządzenia CQ-STAB, ocena długości ścieżki (Sway Path) SP (mm) i wielkości pola zakreślanego (Sway Area) SA (mm2) przez COP (Centre of pressure) przy zachowanej kontroli wzrokowej (EO) i bez kontroli wzrokowej (EC). Wyniki poddano analizie statystycznej.
Wyniki. Uzyskane wyniki badań nie charakteryzowały się rozkładem normalnym, stąd do obliczeń wykorzystano testy nieparametryczne. Na podstawie analizy stwierdzono, że dziewczęta uzyskały zdecydowanie lepsze wyniki w zakresie długości ścieżki i wielkości pola zakreślanego przez COP określające stabilność statyczną w porównaniu do chłopców, zarówno przy zachowanej kontroli wzrokowej, jak i bez kontroli wzrokowej.
Wnioski. Analiza wyników badań wskazała na lepszą stabilność posturalną określaną w warunkach statyki u badanych dziewcząt niż u chłopców. Różnice międzypłciowe zaobserwowano zarówno w badaniu z oczami otwartymi, jak i zamkniętymi, co może wskazywać na zmienność dynamiki rozwoju funkcjonalnego ośrodkowego układu nerwowego odpowiadającego za kontrolę stabilności posturalnej u dziewcząt i chłopców.
stabilność statyczna, dzieci, dymorfizm
Introduction. Equilibrioception – or sense of balance – is dependent on a number of features of the nervous system and motor system. A rotational sense of balance is fully developed at around 6 years of age; static and dynamic balance, however, is achieved at about 12 years of age.
Purpose. This paper aims to identify dimorphic differences of postural static stability in children of the same age range.
Research Material and Method. Material: The research group consisted of 450 children aged 9 to 12, comprising 235 girls and 215 boys. Research method: The measurement of the Centre of Pressure Sway Path length (mm) and the Sway Area size (mm2) with Eyes Open and Eyes Closed (EO/EC) using CQ-STAB device. The results have been subjected to statistical analysis.
Results. The results obtained did not present a normal distribution and therefore non-parametric tests were used for the calculations. The analysis shows that girls, when compared with boys, achieved significantly better results in static stability measured by determining both the Sway Path and the Sway Area of the COP, both in EO and EC conditions.
Conclusions. Research results analysis indicated a better postural static stability in females compared to male research participants. Gender differences were observed in the study in both Eyes Open and Eyes Closed conditions; this may indicate functional developmental variability of the central nervous system responsible for postural stability control in girls and boys.
static stability, children, dimorphism
Magdalena Goliwąs, Ewa Kamińska, Marta Flis-Masłowska,
Marzena Wiernicka, Jacek Lewandowski
M. Goliwąs, E. Kamińska, M. Flis-Masłowska, M. Wiernicka, J. Lewandowski – Balance Versus Postural Stability and Its Disorders in Patients after Ischemic Stroke – Theoretical Study. FP 2017; 17(1); 38-44
The aim of this study is to explain the differences between balance and postural stability, and the changes which occur in these traits in patients after stroke.
Human being has the natural ability to stand on two feet and to move on the two feet across an unfamiliar terrain. However these abilities do constitute a big challenge for the balance control system, which is being controlled through the three separate systems, two of which are sight, responsible for planning of the locomotion activity, vestibular system, responsible for spatial orientation of the human body. The third, and the most complex is the sensory system (composed of proprioceptors and mechanoreceptors). In terms of biomechanics the balance is defined as the ability to maintain the center of gravity of the human body above the supporting plane.
One of the most important determinants of the correct body posture is the postural stability, which wider concept and denotes the ability to recover the balance. This is possible thanks to three strategies. Patients after a stroke have a problem with the ability of spontaneous kinesthetic response. The distribution of pressure forces of the plantar side of a foot on the ground changes, it becomes difficult to maintain balance, and the consequences are frequent falls, femur fractures and problems with the basic activities of daily living.
Postural stability, balance, stroke
Ewa Kamińska, Sonia Porzucek, Marzena Wiernicka, Magdalena Goliwąs, Jacek Lewandowski
E. Kamińska, S. Porzucek, M. Wiernicka, M. Goliwąs, J. Lewandowski – Functional assessment of movement patterns in selected martial arts and sports contestants, using the test Functional Movement Screen™. FP 2016; 16(3); 42-49
Purpose of this study. Functional Movement System™ is a concept created by Cook and Burton, that allows functional evaluation of movement patterns. The purpose of this study was to compare movement patterns in contestants of the three sports disciplines, determination of weak links in the cinematic chain. Additionally, it was attempted to determine which motor organ is most exposed to incorrect movement patterns in contestants of individual disciplines.
Material and methods. In the study evaluation included movement patterns of 60 contestants that train box, judo and kickboxing by means of FMS™, including 20 women and 40 men, at the age from 18 to 30 years. The investigated persons were divided in three groups, where qualification criterion for each group was type of trained martial art or sport and training seniority.
Results. Difference between boxers, kickboxers and judokas were observed only within individual movement patterns. Their global quality was comparable for all persons.
Conclusions. Final results of FMS™ test were not statistically significantly different due to type of trained martial art or sport. In judokas it the most asymmetry was during individual tests, as many as 30% of investigated receive the lowest average result in FMS™ tests, that suggest implementation of corrective training. The areas that were most exposed in boxers and kickboxers appeared to be spine lumbar section and shoulder joint area, and in boxers only spine lumbar section.
injury prophylactics, FMS™, box, judo, kickboxing